Carcassonne Walled City
Aude (11000) Population: 47,268 Altitude: 133 m
Carcassonne Cité is a hilltop town ringed by two concentric walls, hosting 52 defensive towers. It's the largest walled city in Europe, with 3 km of completely intact walls. Carcassonne Walled City still contains a Medieval-style village (although oriented now towards tourists). There's even an inner castle, the Comptal Chateau, with its own fortified walls and moat.
The Walled City of Carcassonne dates to Gallo-Roman times, and was enlarged and fortified in Medieval times, and served as a defensive city until the 17th century. The adjacent Town of Carcassonne was founded across the river around 1250, and called then the Lower Town.
Carcassonne Walled City
While the history of Carcassonne dates back to Roman times, the current fortified "Medieval" structure was actually designed and built in the later half of the 19th century [see History, below]. A beautiful job was done, though, and Carcassonne City has a true Medieval look.
Walk the Double Walls.
Enter inside the outer walls and walk around the circumference of the fortified town (over an hour's walk) for the most impressive feeling of the defenses and the architecture. You'll also have good views from the frequent apertures at the surrounding countryside and the town of Carcassonne spread out below to the west.
Inside the inner walls, the stone streets and buildings are very Medieval, with narrow cobblestone street and ancient buildings. The interior "village" area inside the walls of La Cité is quite large, and you'll need the whole day to explore all of it.
Visiting the fortified walled city is free. The only visiting cost is for The Count's Castle, the small fortified castle site at the center of the walled city.
The little squares filled with souvenir shops and café-restaurants reminded us of, for example, villages like St Paul-de-Vence and Les Baux-de-Provence. This is in the way of an observation rather than a criticism. The cafés especially can be quite welcoming after some hours of exploring the cité.
The Place Marou is packed with terrace restaurants, filling the square. Prices are moderate and reasonable, and the choice is fairly extensive, from pizza to the regional dishes of cassoulet and magret de canard.
The Count's Castle
Inside the fortified city is a complete 12th-century fortified castle, the Château Contal. The entrance to the castle is across a narrow bridge over a (now dry) moat; this was obviously once a draw bridge.
Cost. Entry into the fortified "cité" of Carcassonne is free. Only the inner Castle, with its museum-style displays charges admission: about 9.00 euros (2018); extra for the multi-lingual audio guides.
The Basilique Saint-Nazaire is 11th and 12th centuries, but is on the site of a 6th-century church. Among the historical interior sites are stained-glass windows from the 13th and 14th centuries.
Cathars at Carcassonne City
In the 12th century the inhabitants were sided with the Cathars. On 1 August, 1209, the Albigensian Crusade arrived at Carcassonne and began their siege. On 15 August, the city surrendered, and the people were allowed to leave, without any belongings at all,, departing "carrying nothing but their sins".
The Town of carcassonne is just across the Aude river, northwest of the walled city. The walking distance between the town center (by the Office de Tourisme) and the walled city is 1.5 km (20 minutes), to either the Porte de l'Aude (west side) or Porte Narbonnaise (east side).
History of Carcassonne Walled City
Prehistoric: The area around Carcassonne had settlements dating back to 3500 BC.
Celto-Ligurian: The current walled Carcassonne is on the hilltop site of a fortified oppidum of the Celtic/Gaul tribe Volcae Tectosage, and was an important trading site in the 6th century BC.
Gallo-Roman: The romans fortified the same site about 100 BC as the colonia (outpost) of Julia Carsaco. The name Julia Carsaco was later transformed into Carcasum. In 453, king Theodoric II of the Visigoths took control of Carcassonne, and nine years later the Romans ceded the entire Languedoc-Roussillon area (then Septimania) to Theorodic II.
Medieval: King Theodoric II enlarged Carcassonne, building more fortifications, and probably an earlier basilica at the site of the current basilica Saint Nazaire. The Merovingian King Clovis I [see Kings] attacked Carcassonne repeatedly in 508, unsuccessfully. In 725, the Saracens captured Carcassonne and held it for 34 years, being driven out in 759 by King Pepin the Short (aka Pippin the Younger). By 760, Kink Pepin had driven out the Saracens and had taken control of the South of France, but couldn't capture Carcassonne.
By the beginning of the 13th century, Carcassonne had become a stronghold of the Cathars, and was targeted by the Roman Catholic Church's Cathar Crusade (or Albigensian Crusade). A two week siege (1-15 August, 1209) ended with the town's surrender, and the Cathar inhabitants and refugees were expelled naked or nearly naked. But at least they weren't slaughtered — a variant solution popular in the Middle Ages.
In 1240, Carcassonne withstood a siege by Raimon Trencavel during the later Cathar wars, trying to reclaim the lands taken from his family when he was an infant. Seven years later, Carcassonne submitted to the rule of the Catholic French kingdom, under King Louis IX (Saint-Louis) [Kings].
Louis IX built the new town part of Carcassonne, and he and his successor, Philip III (the Bold) built the outer ramparts of the fortress. In 1335, during the Hundred Years' War, the Black Prince (England's Prince of Wales, Edward of Woodstock) destroyed the lower town but failed to capture the walled city.
The province of Roussillon, along with Carcassonne, was joined to the Kingdom of France with the Treaty of Pyrenees in 1659. The site thus lost it's military importance and the fortifications were abandoned.
More Recently: During the time of Napoleon and the Restoration, Carcassonne was struck from the list of official fortifications. The fortified cité fell into such ruin that, in 1849, the French government decreed that it would be demolished.
There was a general uproar about demolishing the site, and a campaign to preserve the fortress was led by the mayor (an antiquary), Jean-PIerre Cros-Mayrevieille and the first inspector of ancient monuments (and writer) Prosper Mérimée. The architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was commissioned to renovate the fortified city, and the result is still there for us all to see.
• GPS: 43.212605, 2.3561
IGN (1/25,000) #2345 E "Carcassonne"
The GR36 (Grande Randonnée) passes through the center of Carcassonne town and through part of the Carcassonne City fortress.
Area hike GR36. From the Canal du Midi locks in the center of Carcassonne town, the GR36 follows along the banks of the canal for 7 km, northeast, to the Ecluse de l'Evéque (Bishop's Locks). This makes a lovely half-day out-and-back hike from the town. At the Ecluse de l'Evéque, the Canal du Midi goes north, away from the canal, but you can extend your Canal walk by continuing along the Canal du Midi towpath.
Southeast from Carcassonne, the GR36 goes through the picturesque little town of Lagrasse, before heading south towards the Spanish border.
Canal du Midi Hikes. The Canal du Midi is famous for the beautiful paths along its length, and you can hike along it from Carcassonne. Towards the west, though, the "paths" along the canal are often town streets and though built-up areas.
Long distance GR36. The GR36 hiking trail is about 1900 km long, running north-south down the western part of France. It begins at Ouistreham (Calvados), on the English Channel, and ends of Bourg-Madam (Pyrénées-Orientales), on the Spanish border, southwest of Perpignan.
Transportation Carcassonne Walled City
Narbonne - Carcassonne - Toulouse - Bordeaux
This line has several trains a day, between Narbonne, Carcassonne Town, Toulouse and Bordeaux. Direct service (no train changing) is available for all of these places; or with changes for more frequent service. The rates listed are approximate only (2018).
• Narbonne - Bordeaux, 30 minutes, 16-25 euros.
• Narbonne - Toulouse, 1h25, 36-56 euros.
• Narbonne - Carcassonne, 30 minutes, 16-25 euros.
• Toulouse - Carcassonne, 50 minutes, 16-26 euros.
• Toulouse - Bordeaux, 3h30 (direct), 75-120 euros.