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Century Historical Event Other Events
VI-V BC Greeks (Phoceans) at Marseille (Massalia)
Ligurians occupy the mountainous back-country of the Alpes Maritimes
From 600 BC: 350 oppida (castellaras) built in the [now] Alpes Maritimes.
IV-III BC Celts invade Provence, mix with the Ligurians, resulting in Celto-Ligurians.
Nice (Nikaïa), Antibes (Antipolis), Villefranche founded by the Massaliotes (Greeks of Marseille).
Planting of grapes and olives.
 
II-I BC Marseille requests Rome's help to defend against raiding tribes. Rome arrives, installs garrisons.
Aix becomes the capital of the Provincia Romana
Gaule Transalbine: La narbonnaise
Gaule Cisalpine: from the Rubicon to the Var
13 BC: Via Julia Augustus (or Via Julia), a coast road into Gaul (Provence), started; used to conquer the Ligurians and bring the Pax Romain to Provence. 150 years later merged into the Aurelian Way.
The Trophy des Alps built on the Alpine Summit (Summa Alpe) of La Turbie.
II AD The province Alpas Maritimae created, with the capital at Cimiez (Cemenelum).  
III AD Pax romana. Gallo-Roman civilization. Beginning of the Christian era. Bornes milliaires
IV AD Cimiez peaks; Embrun becomes the capital of the province.  
V AD Barbarian invasions.
"Provence" born, about 450, on the left bank of the Rhone, with the capital at Arles.
Nice and Cimiez destroyed.
The Lerins islands settled in 400: monk St Honorat on St Honorat, and his sister St Margaret on the island of St Marugerite.
VI AD Wisigoths, Ostrogoths, Saxons, and Lombards arrive.
End of the Roman Empire.
The population of Cimiez withdraws to the "Rocher" of Nice.
The Francs, and Clovis.
VII AD The Franc Royalty begins.
VIII AD Saracen incursions along the coast.
Carolingien Empire begins.
IX AD Saracens ravage Nice and surrounding towns (Vence, La Turbie, ...).
X AD Feudal era begins.
Bourgogne Kingdom. Provence protected by the germanic Saint-Empire Local Lords recognize the sovereignty of Guillaume the Liberator,Comte de Provence.
Saracens install bases in the Maures mountains of the Var [map], for incursions towards the interior.
XI AD Provence is Feudal. "Saracen Towers" built, to watch for Saracens.
XI, beginning XII: castles built on isolated summits.
XII AD The Counts of Provence: House of Barcelone and Aragon
Knights Hospitalers and Knights Templers
Perched villages built, so the Lords could gather the population around their castles.
XIII AD The Counts of Provence: House of Anjou Villages fortified.
XIV AD The Grimaldis, chased out of Genoa, install in Provence.
Reine Jeanne dies, childless.
The big split: Pope in Avignon and Pope in Rome.
Comté de Nice established (1388); lasts for 5 centuries.
XV AD Duchy of Savoy
King Réné, Count of Provence (1434-1480).
Provence [but not Nice] becomes French (1481)
end XV, XVI: Gothic churches, country chapels.
XV-XVIII AD Comté de Nice wars with Savoy and France
XVI AD Wars of Religion (1533-1580 XVI, beginning XVII: Penitent chapels.
XVII AD Nice becomes a free port (1612).
XVIII AD French Revolution (1789)
Nice attached to France (1793)
Villages beging to decend to sites with easier access.
XIX AD Napoleon Bonaparte's Empire falls (1814).
 

Sources:

Chateaux Villages & Ouvrages Défensifs des Alpes-Maritimes - Beauchamp, Loïc-Jahan, Edisud; other random sources.